This is the second out of three posts where I will explain how to hook up Hubot to Github’s API. The goal of these posts is to get notified in Slack when your pull request becomes unmergeable.
If you have never worked with Hubot in Slack before, read the first post: “Hubot: get it running locally in Slack”
Github offers an extensive API to connect to your repositories and automate your daily development workflow. Their documentation is very detailed and extensive and they have excellent guides to help you get started. For the goal of this post, I’ll focus on Pull Request events.
Enable Github’s Pull Request events
As said above, the goal of this project is to get notified in Slack when a merge-conflict occurs. Luckily, Github supports webhooks. That means you can get them to notify you whenever an event, like a push or a commit, happens, which in turn enables you to check the status of your pull request. Read more about all the events at https://developer.github.com/webhooks/
Send events to a webhook.
When an event happens on a pull request, Github gathers all relevant data and sends that event (a payload) to the URL of your choosing. This is called a webhook.
To set this up, go to the settings page of your repository. Select
Webhooks. Then click the
add webhookbutton. You have to provide a so called payload URL which is the webhook URL. Since you are running everything locally, you do not yet have a public URL.
Set up ngrok
Ngrok is a tool that enables you to expose your local webserver to the internet. Download it here. Unzip it from your bot’s directory. This will install a small executable in your bot’s root directory:
Run it on port 8080, which is Hubot’s default port:
You should see something like this:
You can use the
http://URL for now, you can open that in your browser to see a nifty web interface.
Set up the webhook.
Copy and paste the entire URL, ending with
.iointo the Payload URL field of the form. Append
/hubot/github/generalto the URL. The
/hubotpart is important because it is a requirement. The next part, in this example
/github, can be anything you like and
/generalis the room’s name in Slack (which you are free to change as well).
Make sure the content type is set to
application/jsonand skip the secret field for now. The secret is used to protect your endpoint so we know that messages are coming from Github, but for brevity we’ll leave this up to you, the reader.
Let me select individual events. In this case you only want to receive
pull requestevents. Click
Note: Every time you restart ngrok, you’ll get a new URL. Make sure to update it in your Github repo settings.
Test the webhook.
You will see a list of recent payload deliveries underneath your webhook form right after you save it. There is also a red error mark next to the first delivery.
Now check ngrok in your console. You should see this:
This means 2 things:
- The request was received by your local server. Yay!
- The endpoint it’s routed to, doesn’t exist yet.
Note: If you do not have your bot running, you’ll see a 502 Bad Gateway error.
Make Hubot listen to the webhook
In order to get rid of the 404 error, you have to setup an endpoint in your bot that will execute your code when a payload is received. In your favorite editor (I use Vim), create a new coffeescript file called
github.coffeeinside your bot’s
First things first, export a function:
This is a requirement and part of the anatomy of a Hubot script. The robot parameter is an instance of your bot.
Create the endpoint:
robot.routeris a built-in Hubot method. By adding
.postyou create a route for POST requests. Naturally, if you want to create a route for GET request, you simply call
'/hubot/github/:room'is the webhook URL you set up in your Github repo, where
:roomis a variable you have to define. The callback,
(req, res)is called when a POST request comes in. Save the room name and the JSON object that contains all data in 2 variables:
data. Then, to check that it works, the pull request’s number is printed out and will show up in your terminal.
Finally, you want to tell Github you’ve successfully processed the request. You can do that by sending a success response:
That’s it! Your Hubot is now listening to pull request events from Github. You can now move on to do stuff with the data you receive. The final post covering this subject will be published soon.Read more
This is the first out of three posts where I will explain how we hooked up Hubot to Github’s API. The goal of this is to get notified in Slack when your pull request becomes unmergeable.
A Springest Hackday idea
At Springest we hold regular hackdays. The purpose of these days is to learn, have fun together and work on something that is related to Springest, but isn’t part of our daily work-routine. It can be anything from hanging a swing in the office to building the company’s internal Facebook app called Sputr.
Starting the day, we all share our ideas during stand-up and we get to work. Either solo or in a team.
‘Get slack notifications when a pull request becomes unmergeable’ was one of the ideas on our hackday-list that I thought was interesting to work on.
In this post, I’ll explain how to run Hubot locally in Slack, so you can test-drive your code.
So what is Hubot, anyway?
Hubot is a chat bot by Github. It is open source and written in CoffeeScript and Node.js. You can automate processes with Hubot through scripts, or just add some flavor to your team’s culture. At Springest, our bot is called ‘Ingrid’. She notifies us about all sorts of things that happen on the Springest website and we can tell her to do stuff for us, like deploying, share support ticket info or give someone karma. All by messaging in Slack.
Slack is a messaging app for teams. Messaging is categorized in channels that everyone is free to follow or not. It enables us to easily communicate with each other.
To install Hubot, you need to follow these instructions:
Node.js and npm
Open your console and check if you have installed node.js and npm:
If nothing exists, install node.js by downloading it here. This will also install npm.
Make sure you have the latest version of npm installed, by running:
If you have never installed hubot before, you need to install its generator. Otherwise you can skip this step.
Let’s run it!
Now that you have the generator, add a directory for your bot and create it. I asked my six-year-old son what name he would give a robot, if he would have one. He said ‘Stone’ because robots are hard like stone. So I called it Stone for this example, no questions asked.
Create your bot (just hit ‘enter’ for all questions) :
Check if it is alive and kicking by running:
If all went well, you should now be able to chat with your bot in the console. Type ‘your-bot-name the rules’ and see if you get a reply.
Move from console to Slack
Create an account on Slack if you do not have one yet. I’ve created my own personal channel, to test this bot before implementing the code in Ingrid, our company bot. Once you have your own channel set up, go to
https:// yourslackchannel .slack.com/apps/A0F7XDU93-hubotand click on the green button, ‘Add Configuration’.
Add your bot’s username and hit ‘Add Hubot Configuration’.
Keep this page open, because you need to copy the environment variable in order to run your bot in Slack.
Now that you’ve configured your bot in Slack, and got your token, you have to install the Slack adapter and your bot is setup to run locally:
Open Slack on your computer and restart your bot with Slack’s environment variable, followed by a call to hubot’s scripts, plus the adapter flag:
Invite your bot to your #random Slack channel (
/invite @botname) and test it out by typing
@botname pug me
Congratulations! You are now ready to hook up Github’s pull request events. A new post about this will be published shortly.Read more
This is the third and last post in this Vim series. You might be interested in reading through my previous posts before you continue reading (especially if you are a real beginner):
In this post we will talk about buffers, tabs, windows and the different modes that you can find in Vim. Let’s jump in!
Buffers, windows and tabs
If you are moving to Vim from another editor like SublimeText or Atom, you are used to working with tabs in a certain way. Specifically, a tab represents an open file, and as soon as you close it, it goes away. A web browser follows this same principle as well.
Vim has a system for tabs too, but it works in a completely different way from what you are used to. I got quite confused by this when I first started with Vim, so don’t panic if that’s the case for you as well. You are not alone!
In Vim, there are three levels of view abstraction: buffers, windows, and tabs. Let’s look at each of them from the ground up, since it’s the best way to understand the differences in concept and learn how to use them properly.
A buffer in Vim is an open instance of a file. This means that the file may not be visible on the current screen, but it is saved somewhere in memory.
Whenever you open a file in Vim, that file gets put into a buffer that will remain in memory until you explicitly delete it with a call to
:bdelete. You can list all buffers currently open within a Vim session by typing
Let’s look at some other useful commands:
zz- Center the current line within the window
zt- Bring the current line to the top of the window
zb- Bring the current line to the bottom of the window
Although files in Vim’s buffer may not be visible at all times, its functionality is analogous to how you use tabs in familiar text editors.
A window in Vim is a viewport onto a single buffer. You can open a new window with
:vsplit, including a filename in the call. This opens your file as a new buffer (again, similar to a tab in a traditional editor) and opens a new window to display it.
This is what a Vim session with multiple windows open (horizontally and vertically) looks like:
Windows are also referred to as Splits.
Let’s look at some useful commands:
:new [filename]- Open a new window above the current window
:vnew [filename]- Open a new window beside the current window
:split <filename>- Edit the specified file in new window above the current window
:vsplit <filename>- Edit the specified file in a new window beside the current window
<Ctrl-w>h,j,k,l- Navigate to the window in the given direction
Finally, a tab in Vim is a collection of one or more windows. This allows you to group windows in a useful way.
Let’s look at some related commands:
:tabnew- Open a new tab
:tabedit <filename>- Edit the file with the provided name in a new tab
gt- Go to next tab open
gT- Go to previous tab
<Ctrl-w>T- Break the current window out to a new tab
Enough about navigation for now. Let’s move on and talk about the different modes that you will find in Vim’s world!
Vim is a “modal” editor, which means it has various modes that change its behavior in response to your key presses. This modal nature is at the core of Vim’s power, so it’s very important to understand it in order to use Vim in the most efficient way.
Vim has three different modes: insert, normal and visual. Let’s now look at them one at a time.
When you use other editors like SublimeText or Atom, you’re always working in insert mode. In this mode, characters appear immediately in the buffer as you type them. You can enter insert mode by pressing
iin normal mode.
However, Vim prioritizes moving through a file and making targeted edits, which are done in normal mode.
Normal mode is the default mode Vim starts in. You are expected to be in this mode the most of your time, while using all motions and operations that we saw in the previous post.
This fits with the idea that we, as developers, spend the majority of our time moving and editing within a document, rather than simply adding long blocks of text.
In more familiar text editors, a block of text can be selected by clicking the mouse and dragging over a number of lines or characters. Vim introduces Visual model, which allows you to reuse all motion commands and operators that there are to manipulate blocks of text.
Enter Visual mode by pressing
vin normal mode. Move the cursor using all the normal motions, and Vim will highlight from where you started to where you move the cursor. You can use a number of keys such as
cto operate on the visual selection, similar to how these keys would operate in normal mode.
Sometimes you will need to operate on entire lines. Visual Line Mode turns out to be very useful in these cases, and it can be started by pressing
Vfrom normal mode.
But what about selecting a column of text? Vim’s got you covered too, enter Visual Block Mode by pressing
<Ctrl-v>from normal mode. Here is a list of the common visual block operations and their mapping:
x- Delete the visual block selection
c- Change the visual block selection
r- Replace all characters in the block with the next character you type
I- Insert text before the block
A- Insert text after the block
Be aware that when you change or add any new text, Vim will only show the change happening in the first line of the block. After you complete the change/insertion and hit
<esc>, it will replicate to all lines.
If you only take one thing away from reading this blog post, let it be this: Normal mode is your best friend!
Avoid staying in insert mode for extended periods of time. And also, don’t move along the file while in insert mode. It might be difficult in the beginning, but once you get used to it, you will see how much faster you become. ;)
This series is a quick introduction to the infinite world of Vim. It is a tool help you get started, but remember that learning Vim is a nonstop continuous process. Stay on it, make it part of your daily life, and every time that you find yourself doing something in a very inefficient way, you know what to do… Go online, look for a friend and ask for help!Read more
This is the second post in the vim series. You might be interested in reading through my previous post before you continue reading (especially if you are a real beginner):
In this post we will dive into some subjects that you need to master when working with Vim. The very first one is motions, also known as how to get your cursor where you want it.
Motions and Moving
Developers spend a lot of time navigating files and positioning the cursor where needed, and not much time typing new code. It comes as no surprise that Vim is optimized for this situation and has many ways to efficiently move the cursor where you want it.
Motions are defined as the commands you use to move around Vim.
Moving within a line
These are the most important key bindings for moving within a line:
l- move left/right by character
w- move forward one (w)ord
b- move (b)ackward one word
e- move forward to the (e)nd of a word
Before we move forward, let me give you a pro tip: Whenever you find yourself repeating or holding down a motion key to move around, take a second to consider if there is a better way of doing what you are trying to accomplish. Most probably there is one ;-)
Jumping within a line
But what if you want to move to a specific character within a line? Try any of these:
f<char>- (f)ind a character forward in a line and move to it
T<char>- find a character backward in a line and move un(t)il it
t<char>- find a character forward in a line and move un(t)il it (one character before)
F<char>- (f)ind a character backward in a line and move to it
$- go to the end of the line
0- go to the beginning of the line
Moving between lines
I know, I know… most of the files you work with contain more than one line! So here it is: How to move between different lines:
k- move up/down one line
L- move (H)igh, (M)iddle, or (L)ow within the viewport
Ctrl-d- move (u)p or (d)own
/- search for any word in the file
n- repeat last search
N- repeat last search in opposite direction
<NN>G- (G)o to the line number NN
G- go to the end of the file
gg- go to the beginning of the file
Enough movement for now! Next let’s focus on one of the most powerful and unique aspects of Vim: Vim’s Command Language. Vim uses a concise and expressive language of key mappings that allows us to describe every edit we want to make. And it is worth investing the time needed to master it!
Editing Command Syntax
Just as any sentence is made up of a verb and a noun, an editing command is made up of two parts: an operation and a section of text. For example, take the commands for “delete this word”, “change the next sentence” or “copy this paragraph”. They all have the same structure:
<number><command><text object or motion>
The number is used to perform the command over multiple text objects or motions, e.g., backward three words, forward two paragraphs. This number is optional and can appear either before or after the command.
The command is an operation, e.g., change, delete (cut) or yank (copy).
The text object or motion can either be a text construct, e.g., a word, a sentence, a paragraph, or a motion, e.g., forward a line, back one page, end of the line.
Let’s look at each of these one at a time.
Find below some of the most useful operator mappings:
y- (Y)ank or copy
<- indent, dedent
=- reformat (reindent, break long lines, etc.)
The simplest commands are made by repeating the operator a second time to act on the current line. For example, where
dis the operator for delete,
ddwill delete the whole line. Each of
We can also identify text by using any motion. Just like you can use
wto move to the next word, you can use
dwto delete to the next word. This also includes more complex motions such as
t, which will wait for you to specify a character to go up un(t)il.
Herein lies the magic of Vim: Just by following these rules, you can create any variation of the delete operation by combining it with any motion. Let’s look at some examples:
dw- delete to the next word
dt,- delete up until the next comma on the current line
de- delete to the end of the current word
d2e- delete to the end of next word
dj- delete down a line (current and one below)
dt)- delete up until next closing parenthesis
d/rails- delete up until the first search match for “rails”
Using Text Objects
You can think of text objects as a kind of “noun” that can be used in place of motions to define a range of text from anywhere within it. Let’s look at some examples:
aw- inner word, a word
ap- inner paragraph, a paragraph
ap- inner parenthesis, a parenthesis
a'- inner single quote
a"- inner double quote
at- inner tag, a tag
Check out this blogpost for a nice rundown of the different text objects available and practical examples.
You can also get a full listing from within Vim by typing
By now you might be wondering if there are any best practices to help you decide when to use motions and when to use text objects. A command using a motion, for example
cw, operates from the current cursor position. A command using a text-object, for example
ciw, operates on the whole object regardless of the cursor position. Although this requires one more character, it saves you the time and effort of moving the cursor into the “right” position.
That’s why it’s generally accepted that you should try to use text objects rather than motions whenever possible.
Are you still curious about the infinite world of Vim? In the next post I will focus on windows and tabs, modes and plugins. So stay tuned!Read more
Some months ago I organized a workshop at Springest to share the basics of tmux and Vim with the rest of the team. I already wrote a post about tmux. And now it’s time to say something about Vim!
I will be splitting the content of the workshop into different posts, this being the first one where I will focus on how to survive your first week!
It goes without saying that as software developers, our jobs depend on continuous learning. It’s therefore incredibly useful to jump in as a beginner on new tools and subjects from time to time. So why don’t we all give Vim a try today? Here are 5 tips to help you go through your very first days.
Vim comes along with its own interactive tutorial: Vimtutor. Following the tutorial takes about 30 minutes, where you will learn your first Vim commands: how to create and open files, make changes and save them, etc.
Open up a shell, type
vimtutorand you are ready to go!
Avoid too much configuration
Vim allows you to configure and extend its behavior almost without boundaries. Be careful here, since it is recommended to spend your first weeks getting to know Vim’s core behavior and its default key bindings. Try to stay away from any type of customization or configuration. I promise that when you look back in the future, you will thank yourself ;)
However it is totally allowed to borrow some basic configuration from a friend. Personally I learn things much better if my screen looks nice (I guess because of my design background), and the default vim colors were not so appealing for me. So some configuration was needed in my case. Back then, I borrowed Mike Coutermarsh’s configuration. But you can check out my .vimrc as well if you prefer.
If you encounter any issues when using my configuration, ping me on twitter and I’ll help you out.
Build up a cheat sheet
There are some very good cheat sheets out there when starting to learn vim, like this one, that can serve as a great reference. However it is very important that you build up your own while you are learning.
For those of you familiar with Asana, I created a single project when I started learning: Mastered Vim. I was regularly adding new tasks (following different topics, like motions and moving, windows, tabs, etc.) and writing down all related key bindings in the task description. Every morning before jumping into Vim, I would review all of them and mark any task that I could already remember as completed!
This method worked great for me, and I encourage you to do the same.
Ask for help
There will be moments in which you need to ask for help. In this case, you have several options:
Vim’s Built-In Help - Great resource when you know exactly what you are searching for. Open up vim and type
:help <vim-command>. From there you can follow any tag under the help by typing
Ctrl + ].
Vim Wiki - Visit this site when you have other more general questions, like how to re-indent a whole file.
Friends - At Springest there are other people that use Vim too. We created our own #vim channel in Slack. I love it when I go there with a question aiming for a very direct answer and see others starting a discussion about the different ways in which it can be accomplished within the Vim world!
Stick with it
Last but not least, you need to make a commitment to yourself - keep going when the landscape gets dark. Normally it takes about a week to feel productive again. From there on you can only continue getting more and more efficient, which is something that definitely helps you grow as a developer. Enjoy the journey!
Other posts in this seriesRead more
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